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Maps GPS Glossary - H, I, J

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H, I, J

hachure - Short lines attached to, and perpendicular with a contour line usually used to indicate a depression contour.

hammock - A piece of fabric of netting that can be used for sleeping, resting or swinging after being suspended between two trees or other supports.

heading - The direction one is traveling.

hemisphere - The half of a sphere. It is often used to describe half of Earth.

hillock - A small hill.

historical map - A map showing how certain areas or regions were like in the past.

HTDP - Horizontal Time Dependent Positioning - A computer database and interpolation program to predict horizontal displacements between coordinate points over time.

hydrography - The science that measures depths, tides and currents of a body of water, like oceans, seas, lakes or rivers.

hypsography - The study of elevations and how are they distributed on the surface of Earth.

hypsometric map - The type of map that shows relief either by using contours, hachures, shading or tinting.

hypsometry - The science that deals with the measurement of land elevation relative to sea level.

IGEB - Interagency GPS Executive Board - established by Presidential directive in 1996 to manage the Global Positioning System (GPS) and its U.S. Government augmentations as a national asset.

illumination - The signals coming from GPS satellites.

index contour - A contour line on a topographic map that is labeled as to elevation; used as a reference.

initialization - The first time a GPS receiver orients itself to its current location.

INMARSAT - International Mobile Satellite Organization - Established in 1979 to serve the maritime industry by developing satellite communications for ship management and distress and safety applications.

ionosphere - A region of the Earth's atmosphere where ionization caused by incoming solar radiation affects the transmission of radio waves. It extends from a height of 43 miles (70 kilometers) to 250 miles (450 kilometers) above the surface.

inselberg - See Monadnock.

intertidal - An area that at high tide is covered with water and at low tide is exposed.

invert route - Displaying and Navigating on a route from the end to the beginning.

isobath - A line on a map connecting two points of equal water depth.

isogloss - A line on a map between linguistically varied areas.

isogone - A line on a map used to show characteristics of the earth's magnetic field.

isogonic lines - A line on a map where the magnetic deviation is the same.

isogram - A line on a map connecting points of equal value.

isograph - A line on a map indicating areas that are linguistically similar.

isogriv - A line drawn on a map such that all points have equal grid variation.

isohel - A line on a map connecting points receiving equal sunshine.

isohyet - A line on a map connecting points having equal rainfall.

isopleth map - The type of map that uses isolines to connect points of equal values, for example connecting areas with similar temperatures.

isotach - A line on a map connecting points of equal wind velocity.

isotherm - A line on a map connecting points of equal mean temperature.

JPALS - Joint Precision Approach and Landing System - A differential GPS that will provide a rapidly deployable mobile, adverse weather, adverse terrain, day-night, and survivable precision approach and landing capability that supports joint service, civil, and multi-national interoperability.

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